||This Puck cartoon portrays President-elect Woodrow Wilson as a farmer, symbolizing the hardworking agrarian roots of many Americans. Uncle Sam tells the Democratic president to use the new team of horses, representing the Democratic majorities in the U.S. House and Senate, to enact the campaign promise of tariff reform. In April 1913, a month after taking office, Wilson spoke before a special joint session of Congress, urging them to enact tariff reform. That October he signed into law the Underwood Tariff Act, which reduced the average rate from 41% to 27% and expanded the free list to include steel, iron, and other major items. In compliance with the recently ratified 16th Amendment, the law also imposed a 1% tax on incomes over $3000 ($54,200 in 2002 dollars) and 1% to 6% graduated surtax on incomes over $20,000 ($361,000 in 2002 dollars).